Syllabus of Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology

The diagnosis and treatment of diseases depend heavily on the sciences of biochemistry and clinical pathology, which are closely connected. Studying biomolecules and their interactions, biochemistry focuses on the chemical reactions that take place inside of living things. Clinical pathology analyses physiological fluids and tissues in a lab to find diseases. Together, they offer important insights into the pathophysiology of illness, facilitating precise diagnosis and the choice of a tailored course of therapy.

In order to investigate the molecular foundation of life, biochemistry studies lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. It reveals these macromolecules’ composition, structure, and metabolism, aiding in our comprehension of biological functions and how they are affected by illness. Clinical pathology analyses samples to test enzymes, hormones, and other chemicals while applying biochemistry principles in a diagnostic situation. Improved illness identification and patient treatment result from these tests’ vital information regarding immune response, organ function, and general health. Medicine has been transformed by the merging of biochemistry and clinical pathology, which has made early illness identification and individualised therapy options possible.Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology is a subject that combines the principles of biochemistry with the application of laboratory tests in clinical settings. This subject is designed to impart basic knowledge on the study of structure and functions of biomolecules and the chemical processes associated with living cells in normal and abnormal states. The course also emphasizes on the clinical pathology of blood and urine.

Upon successful completion of this course, the students will be able to-

  1. Describe the functions of biomolecules.
  2. Discuss the various functions of enzymes in the human system.
  3. Explain the metabolic pathways of biomolecules in both physiological and pathological conditions.
  4. Describe the principles of organ function tests and their clinical significances.
  5. Determine the biomolecules / metabolites in the given biological samples, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
  6. Describe the clinical pathology of blood and urine.
Syllabus of Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology

Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology Subject covers various topics such as:

  1. Introduction to Biochemistry: This topic provides an overview of the scope of biochemistry in the field of pharmacy, highlighting its importance in understanding the molecular basis of drug actions and interactions. Students will also learn about the organization and biochemical processes within cells.
  1. Carbohydrates: Students will study carbohydrates, which are organic compounds. They will learn about the definition, classification, and chemical properties of carbohydrates. The topic covers monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and galactose), disaccharides (maltose, lactose, and sucrose), and polysaccharides (starch and glycogen). The qualitative tests for carbohydrates and their biological roles will also be discussed.
  1. Proteins: This topic focuses on proteins, which are essential macromolecules in living organisms. Students will learn about the definition, classification, and amino acid composition of proteins. The four levels of protein structure and their significance will be covered. The topic also includes qualitative tests for proteins and amino acids, as well as diseases related to protein malnutrition.
  1. Lipids: Lipids, a diverse group of molecules, will be explored in this topic. Students will learn about the definition, classification, and examples of lipids. The structure, properties, and functions of triglycerides (oils and fats) and cholesterol in the body will be discussed. Lipoproteins, their types, composition, and functions, will also be covered. The topic includes qualitative tests for lipids and their functions.
  1. Nucleic Acids: Nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information. Students will study the definition, purine and pyrimidine bases, and the components of nucleosides and nucleotides. The structure of DNA (Watson and Crick model) and RNA, along with their functions, will be discussed.
  1. Enzymes: Enzymes play a crucial role in catalyzing biochemical reactions. Students will learn about the definition, properties, and classification of enzymes based on the IUB and MB systems. The factors influencing enzyme activity, mechanism of action, and enzyme inhibitors will be covered. The therapeutic and pharmaceutical importance of enzymes will also be discussed.
  1. Vitamins: This topic covers the definition and classification of vitamins, including fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. Students will learn about their sources, chemical nature, functions, coenzyme forms, recommended dietary requirements, and deficiency diseases associated with vitamin deficiencies.
  1. Metabolism: Metabolism refers to the chemical processes occurring in living organisms. Students will study the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. The focus will be on important pathways such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, glycogen metabolism, lipolysis, β-oxidation, ketogenesis, ketolysis, and amino acid metabolism. Diseases related to abnormal metabolism will be discussed, including diabetes, fatty liver, and metabolic disorders.
  1. Minerals: This topic covers different types of minerals, their functions in the body, deficiency diseases associated with mineral deficiencies, and recommended dietary requirements.
  1. Water and Electrolytes: Students will learn about the distribution and functions of water in the body, water turnover and balance, electrolyte composition in body fluids, dietary intake of electrolytes, and electrolyte balance. The topic also covers dehydration, its causes, and oral rehydration therapy.
  1. Introduction to Biotechnology: Students will be introduced to the basic concepts of biotechnology, including its applications in pharmacy and healthcare.
  1. Organ Function Tests: This topic focuses on the functions of the kidney and liver. Students will learn about routine tests performed to assess their functions and their clinical significance. The lipid profile tests and their clinical importance will also be discussed.
  1. Introduction to Pathology of Blood and Urine:Students will study lymphocytes and platelets, their roles in health and disease, as well as abnormal erythrocytes and their significance. The topic also covers the normal and abnormal constituents of urine and their significance in diagnosing various conditions.


Finally, it should be noted that clinical pathology and biochemistry are related disciplines that have greatly increased our understanding of disease causes and transformed medical diagnostics. When it comes to analysing body fluids and tissues to find illness, clinical pathology uses the same ideas that biochemistry uses to provide light on the molecular underpinnings of life. These disciplines have been combined to produce more effective early detection, precise diagnosis, and individualised treatment methods. Biochemistry and clinical pathology continue to be essential in improving patient care and, ultimately, people’s general health and well-being, even with increasing technological and automated improvements.

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